B.Com Part 1 functional English definitions
B.Com Part 1 Functional English Definitions
The Science of the language that deals with the changes made in the forms of words and the ways in which they are arranged in sentences is called grammar.
Grammatical arrangement of words in a sentence
It has two kinds
Synthetic classes as (verb, noun, pronoun)
Synthetic Function (Subject, obj, compliment)
The letters are used to form words. These letters are called alphabets.
A, B, C, D etc.
Single meaning full spoken sound and its written symbol is called Word.
Small units in which a word is divided while pronouncing is called syllable.
A group of words which makes some sense but not complete is called phrase.
Under the table
Early in the morning
Kinds of Phrase
Following are the kinds of the phrase
- Noun phrase
- Adjective phrase
- Adverb phrase
- Preposition phrase
- Genitive phrase
- Participle phrase
- Verb phrase
- Infinitive phrase
A Group of words which forms part of a sentence and contains a subject and a predicate is called a Clause.
People who pay their debts are trusted
I think that you have made a mistake
Kinds of Clause
There are two kinds of clause
- Independent clause
- Dependent clause
8) Independent clause:
An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subjects and verb and expresses a complete thought
I like birds but he likes horse
9) Dependent Clause:
Dependent Clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought.
I met a man who was my friend
A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. It begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop, a question or an exclamation mark.
The door opened.
Parts of Sentence
Sentence has two parts
The subject is the name (noun or pronoun) of the person, place or things about which something is said. It may be one word or a group of words.
Ahmad is working hard.
The police have arrested the thief
The pat, which tells something about the subject, is called predicate.
The boy is writing a letter.
Here “the boy” is a subject and “is writing a letter” is predicate.
Object is the part of the verb on which some action has been done.
Aslam brought a car
Kinds of Object
There are two types of objects.
- Direct object
- Indirect object
14) Direct Object:
A direct object is a noun that receives the action of a verb directly.
Ali ate the entire cake
15) Indirect object:
The indirect object receives the action of the verb indirectly and it always comes before the direct object.
He gave me a book
Kinds of Sentences
- According to function
- According to structure
According to function
- Imperative sentence
- Interrogative sentence
- Assertive sentence
- Optative sentence
- Exclamatory sentence
16) Imperative Sentence:
A sentence that denotes a command, an entreaty, a prohibition or some advice, ets is called an imperative sentence.
- Please do not favour to me.
- Do not disturb me.
17) Interrogative Sentence:
An interrogative sentence asks a question. A question mark is used after this kind of sentence.
- Do you know how to clean a carpet?
- What are you going nowadays?
18) Exclamatory Sentence:
A sentence which expresses some strong abrupt feeling is called an exclamatory sentence.
- How high is this building!
- What a beautiful scene it is!
19) Declarative/ Assertive Sentence:
A declarative sentence makes a statement. It tells something. A full stop is used after this kind of sentence.
- My brother caught several fish this morning.
- Hassan has not come today.
20) Optative Sentence:
It is a simple sentence that expresses some wish, prayer and cruse.
- Would that he were rich!
According to Structure
According to structure sentence has three kinds
- Simple sentence
- Compound sentence
- Complex sentence
21) Simple Sentence:
If sentence expresses a single thought and has only one finite verb, it is called a simple sentence
- May you live long!
22) Compound Sentence:
If a sentence expresses more than one thought and has one principal clause and one or more coordinate clause, it is called compound clause.
Life is short and time is fleeting
23) Complex Sentence:
If a sentence expresses more than one thought and has one principal clause and one or more subordinate clause, it is called complex sentence.
All is well that ends well
To parse a word is to tell what part of speech it is:
· Parts Of Speech:
The different kinds and classes into which words are divided, according to their use, are called parts if speech.
These are eight in Number
A noun is the name of a person, place or thing. The thing can be in abstract or in materialistic form.
- Akbar was a great
- Karachi is the largest city of Pakistan.
· Kinds of Nouns
Following are the kinds of the noun
- Common noun
- Proper noun
- Collective/group noun
- Abstract noun
- Material noun
- Countable noun
- Compound noun
26) Common Noun:
A common noun is a name of some common person, place, or thing.
- The student is making a noise.
- The garden is full of flowers.
27) Proper Noun:
A proper noun is the name of some particular person, place, or thing.
Lahore, Ali, etc
28) Collective Noun:
A collective Noun is the name of a group of persons or things taken together.
Mob, Team, Class, etc
29) Abstract Noun:
An abstract noun is the name of quality, condition, action, or idea.
Knowledge, Beauty, Truth, Love, etc
30) Material Noun:
It includes the name of things that are made up of matter.
Gold, milk, water etc
31) Countable Noun:
A countable noun is the Noun cannot be counted by numerals.
Chair, boy, book, etc.
32) Uncountable Noun:
An uncountable is the one that cannot be counted be numerals.
Bread, Advice, Knowledge, etc.
33) Compound Noun:
Noun composed of two words is called compound noun
Black board, Step-brother, toothpaste etc.
34) Predicative Noun:
Noun that requires to make the sense complete is called Predicative Noun.
He is Ali.
35) Noun in Apposition:
The noun used to describe another noun is called noun in apposition.
Ali, my teacher, met me.
Show whether one or more things are spoken of.
Shows the difference of sex (male or female).
A pronoun is a word which is used instead of a noun. For instance:
- Ibrahim is absent, because he is ill.
- The books are where you left them.
Noun that is replaced by pronoun is called its antecedent.
Ibrahim is my friend. He is my class-fellow.
Here “He” is the pronoun whereas “Ibrahim” is its antecedent.
Kinds of Pronouns:
Following are the kinds of pronoun.
- Personal pronoun
- Demonstrative pronoun
- Indefinite pronoun
- Relative pronoun
- Distributive pronoun
- Reflexive pronoun
- Emphatic pronoun
- Interrogative pronoun
40) Personal pronoun:
Personal pronouns are words that stand for a person.
- We play in the ground.
- I am going to Lahore.
41) Kinds of Personal Pronouns:
Following are the kinds of the personal pronouns.
- First person
- Second person
- Third person
First personal pronouns:
A words is used instead of speaking person
I, My, Me, We, Our, Us
Second Personal Pronouns:
A words used instead of person spoken to
You, Your, You
Third Personal Pronouns:
A word used instead of person spoken of
He, She, It, They etc
42) Cases of Personal Pronouns:
The change in the form of Personal pronoun there are three cases of personal pronoun.
- Subjective/Nominative case
- Objective/Accusative case
- Possessive/Genitive case
When a pronoun shows subject is called subjective case
- We are students.
- They are friends.
When a pronoun show an object is called objective case
- He helps me.
- They gave you a pen.
Possessive pronouns show ownership of a person.
- This is my
- That cup is yours.
43) Demonstrative Pronouns:
Pronouns used to point out the objects to which they refer to are called demonstrative pronouns.
This, these, that, those etc
44) Indefinite Pronouns:
They are the pronouns which are used to refer to the persons or things in general. They are therefore called indefinite pronouns.
One, Some, All, Few, Many, etc.
45) Relative Pronouns:
It refers to relates to some noun going before which is called its antecedent.
Who, which, that.
46) Distributive Pronouns:
Distributive pronouns denotes that things are takes on at time
Each, Either, Neither
47) Reflexive Pronouns:
When the action turns back upon the subject, it is expressed this through reflexive pronouns.
- I cut myself.
- She hurt herself.
48) Emphatic Pronouns:
Pronoun that emphasis the noun or pronoun which it refers
- I myself did it.
- The leader himself wrote the song.
49) Interrogative Pronouns:
These pronouns are used to ask questions and they are who, whom, whose, what and which.
50) Reciprocal Pronouns:
Reciprocal Pronouns refer to persons and things which are acting on each other these are Each other and one another.
An adjective is word which adds to the meaning of a noun.
He is a brave boy.
There are twenty boys in this class.
Kinds of adjective
Following are the kinds of adjective
- Adjective of Quality
- Adjectives of Quality
- Adjective of Number
- Demonstrative Adjective
- Interrogative Adjective
- Possessive Adjective
- Proper Adjective
- Distributive Adjective
52) Adjective of Quality:
Adjectives of quality show the kind or quality of person or thing:
Lahore is a large city.
She is a noble girl.
53) Adjectives of Quantity:
Adjectives of quantity show how much of a thing is meant.
- I ate some
- You have no sense.
54) Adjectives of Number:
Adjectives of number show how many persons or things are meant.
- The book has four
- All men must die.
- He made several mistakes in the essay.
Kinds of adjective of Number:
Adjectives of Number are of three kinds
- Definite Numerals
- Cardinals (one two three)
- Ordinals ( first second third)
- Indefinite Numerals (All many some any)
- Distributive Numerals (Each, Every)
55) Demonstrative Adjectives:
These points out which person or thing is meant.
This, That, These, Those, etc
- This book is mine.
56) Interrogative Adjectives:
These are adjectives that are used with nouns to ask questions are called interrogative adjectives.
What, which, whose, when etc
- Which way will you go?
- Whose pen is this?
57: Possessive Adjectives:
These are adjectives that are used with nouns to the possession of a thing.
My, Our, Your, Her, His, Their, its
> This is my book.
58) Proper Adjectives:
These are adjectives that describe a thing by some proper noun.
>A Pakistani food.
59) Distributive Adjectives:
These are adjectives that show that things are taken separately or in a separate lots.
Every, each, either, neither
60) Degrees of Adjectives:
Adjective has three degrees.
- Positive degree
- Comparative degree
- Superlative degree
The positive degree shows the simple quality of an object without reference to others.
- This is a beautiful
- He is a strong
The comparative degree shows comparison between two person and things of the same class.
- Hamid is cleverer than Aslam.
- He is braver than I.
The superlative degree shows comparison between more than two person and things of the same class.
He is the best boy of the class.
A verb is a word that shows action or being.
He washes the car.
We bought a pen.
Kinds of Verbs:
Following are the kinds of verb
- Action Verb
- Linking/Copular verb
- Helping/Auxiliary verb
- Ditransitive verb
- Infinite verb
- Finite verb
- Regular verb
- Irregular verb
62) Action Verbs:
A verb that tells what action the subject performs is called action verb.
He snores all night
Kinds of Action Verbs:
It has following kinds
- Transitive verb
- Intransitive verb
63) Transitive Verb:
A Transitive verb is a verb that denotes an action which passes over from the doer or subject to an object.
The boy kicks the foot ball.
64) Intransitive Verb:
When the action of a verb does not pass over to an object, the verb is said to be intransitive.
The baby sleeps.
Sometimes, the verb in predicate is an incomplete verb. It requires a word or a group of words to make the predicate complete. What is thus required to complete the predicate is called a complement.
- The baby seems Happy.
- Death is realty.
66) Linking/Copular verb:
A verb that links a relation between the subject and its compliment is called linking or copular verb.
- My friend is a teacher.
- I feel
67) Helping/Auxiliary verb:
A verb that helps the main verbs expresses tenses.
Types of Auxiliary verb:
It is of two types
- Primary helping verb.
- Is, are, am, Do, Does, Has, Have
- Was, were, Did
- Modal helping verb.
- Will, Shall
- Can, Could
- May, Might
68) Ditransitive Verb:
A verb that takes a direct and indirect object at the same time is called Ditransitive verb.
- I gave her a book.
(D.V) (I.O) (D.O)
- She sent me flowers.
(D.V) (I.O) (D.O)
69) Regular verb:
Verb whose second and third form is formed by adding –ed or –d to the first form.
- Play Played Played
70) Irregular verb:
Verb whose second and third form cannot be formed by adding –ed or –d to the first form
- Be Was Been
- Do Did Done
71) Causative Verb:
Some verbs used to express that some person causes another person to do something. In this case these verbs are called causative verbs.
Verbal are that words seems to carry the idea of action or being but do not function as a true verb.
It is of three types
Gerund Verbal Noun, infinitive, participle
73) Gerund/Verbal Noun:
A noun that is formed from a verb by adding ing
Swim + ing =swimming
(Verb) + ing = (Noun)
An action that is not limited by anything (Time, number, Person) is called infinitive
In is the base of the verb, often preceded by “To”.
- To go
- To find
A form of verb that can be used both as a verb and as an adjective is called Participle.
- A hand written
- The children are reading an interesting
76) Kinds of Participle:
It has two kinds
- Present participle
- Past participle
It is an action going on incomplete or imperfect. It is formed by adding “ing” to the first form of the verb.
Read + ing =Reading
(V-I) + ing = present participle
It indicates an action completed. It is formed by adding (n, en, d, ed, t) to the first form of the verb.
Wound + ed = wounded
(V-I) + ed = (Past Participle)
Mood is the mode or manner in which the action denoted by the verb represented.
Kinds of Mood:
It has four kinds
- Infinitive mood
- Indicative mood
- Imperative mood
- Subjunctive mood
78) Infinitive Mood:
It is used to name an action, and not is limited by time and number or person.
- I want to sit
- To err is human, to forgive
79) Indicative Mood:
A verb that makes a statement or ask a question
- He is boy.
- He is not a boy.
- Is he a boy?
80) Imperative Mood:
It is used to express a command a wish a piece of advice or a request.
- Sit down.
- Don’t tell a lie.
- Have mercy upon us.
81) Subjunctive Mood:
It is used to state something as condition, wish, desire, purpose or supposition, and does not make a statement.
- Would that I was in Karachi today.
- Were he here, he would do it.
82) Active Voice:
A verb is active when the subject performs the verb
The villagers watched Sana.
83) Passive Voice:
A verb is active when the subject performs the verb
Sana was watched by the villagers.
An adverb is a part of speech that modifies and describes a verb, an adjective, another adverb, clause and sentence.
- He walks quickly
- There were really unhappy
- Ali plays cricket very
Kinds of adverb:
Following are the kinds of adverb
- Adverb of Manners
- Adverb of Place
- Adverb of Time
- Adverb of Degree
- Adverb of Frequency
- Adverb of Affirmation or Negation
- Adverb of Reason
85) Adverb of Manners:
Adverb that answers the question of “How” is called adverb of Manners.
I play well.
86) Adverb of Place:
Adverb that answers the question of “Where” is called Adverb of Place.
I will meet you outside.
87) Adverb of Time:
Adverb that answers the question of “When” is called Adverb of time.
He will come here tomorrow.
88) Adverb of degree:
Adverb that answers the question of “How much” is called Adverb of degree.
He is totally prepared for his birthday.
89) Adverb of Frequency:
Adverb that answers the question of “How Often” is called Adverb of frequency.
He rarely goes by himself.
90) Interrogative Adverbs:
Adverbs that are used in asking a question is called Interrogative Adverbs.
Where is Abdul?
When did you come?
91) Adverb of Affirmation or Negation:
An adverb that show no, yes, surely, certainly etc is called adverb of Affirmation or Negation.
Surely you are mistaken.
He certainly went.
92) Adverb of Reason:
An adverb that shows reason of an action is called adverb of reason.
He worked hard therefore he passed
93) Relative Adverb:
An adverb which not only modifies some word, but also refers back to some antecedent is called relative adverb.
I remember the house where I was born
An adverbial is a word group that is used as an adverb, or a word that isn’t an adverb but is used as one.
I went home.
A preposition is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show its relation to some other word.
- The book is on the table.
- The knife is to cut with.
A conjunction is a word used for joining one words to another, or one sentence to another is called conjunction.
- Aslam and his brother.
Kinds of Conjunction:
- Coordinating conjunction
- Correlative conjunction
- Subordinate conjunction
97) Subordinate conjunction:
These conjunctions join clauses of equal grammatical status.
And, but, for, nor, or, so, yet
98) Correlative Conjunction:
Coordinating conjunction work in pair and join words, phrases, clauses and sentences.
- Both …………………… And
- Either …………………… Or
- Neither …………………… Nor
99) Subordinate Conjunction:
These conjunctions connect clauses of unequal grammatical status.
After, Because, That, Through.
It has no connection with other parts of speech. It is the expression of strong feeling on the part of speaker.
- Hurrah! Alas! Oh! Pooh!
- Hurrah! + We have won the match.
- (Interjection) + (Simple sentence) = Exclamatory sentence
A word that makes a person, place or thing general or particular is called article.
Kinds of Article:
- Indefinite Article
- Definite Article
“A” or”An” is called the indefinite articles because it refers to some person or thing in general.
- A doctor, an hour, etc.
“The” is called the definite article because it normally points out some particular person or thing.
He found the book. (Meaning some particular book)