Functional English Numbers Topic
Point # 1
As a general rule, we make plural by adding ‘S’ to the singular.
Point # 2
But if the noun ends in‘s, ch, sh, or x’ the plural is formed by adding ‘es’ to the noun; as
Catch Catches Match Matches
Glass Glasses Bush Bushes
Wish Wishes Tax Taxes
Point # 3
Nouns ending in ‘Y’ proceeded by a consonant, from their plural by simply changing ‘Y’ into ‘ies’:
Baby Babies Policy Policies
Lady Ladies Story Stories
Point # 4
Nouns ending in ‘y’ preceded by a vowel from their plural by simply adding‘s’ to the singular.
Day Days Monkey Monkeys
Point # 5
Nouns ending in ‘o’ preceded by a consonant, the plural is formed by adding ‘es’ to the singular.
Solo Solos Canto Cantos
Commando Commandos Dynamo Dynamo
Fiasco Fiascos Manifesto Manifestos
Photo Photos Promo Promos
Proviso Provisos Torso Torsos
Zero Zeros Grotto Grottos
Point # 6
But all words ending in ‘oo, io, eo, or yo’ the plural is formed by adding‘s’ to the singular.
Bamboo Bamboos Cameo Cameos
Embryo Embryos Portfolio Portfolios
Ratio Ratios Studio Studios
Trio Trios Zoo Zoos
Point # 7
All words ending in ‘f’ or ‘fe’ form their plural.
Life Lives Leaf Leaves
Knife Knives Loaf Loaves
Belief Beliefs Chief Chiefs
Grief Griefs Bluff Bluffs
Dwarf Dwarfs Hoof Hoofs
Proof Proofs Roof Roofs
Mischief Mischiefs Reef Reefs
Scarf Scarfs Serf Serfs
Turf Turfs Wharf Wharf
Point # 8
Foot Feet Goose Geese
Louse Lice Mouse Mice
Man Men Woman Women
Point # 9
Nouns ending in ‘a’ forms their plurals by adding ‘e’ to the noun.
Antenna Antennae Alumna Alumnae
Larva Larvae Nebula Nebulae
Alga Algae Amoeba Amoebae
Formula Formulae Vertebra Vertebrae
Point # 10
Nouns ending in ‘um’ form their plurals by eliminating um and adding ‘a’ to the noun.
Addendum Addenda Agendum Agenda
Aquarium Aquaria Alluvium Alluvia
Bacterium Bacteria Curriculum Curricula
Datum Data Erratum Errata
Corrigendum Corrigenda Effluvium Effluvia
Emporium Emporia Maximum Maxima
Medium Media Memorandum Memoranda
Stratum Strata Symposium Symposia
Point # 11
Nouns ending in ‘us’ form their plurals by eliminating us and adding ‘I’ to the nouns.
Alumnus Alumni Bacillus Bacilli
Cactus Cacti Focus Foci
Fungus Fungi Nucleus Nuclei
Octopus Octopi Radius Radii
Stimulus Stimuli Syllabus Syllabi
Point # 12
Nouns ending in ‘ex’ or ‘ix’ form plurals by eliminating ‘ex’ or ‘ix’ and adding ices.
Apex Apices Appendix Appendices
Cervix Cervices Index Indices
Matrix Matrices Vortex Vortices
Point # 13
Nouns ending in ‘eau’ or ‘ieu’ form their plurals by adding ‘x’ to the noun.
Adieu Adieux Beau Beaux
Bureau Bureaux Plateu Plateaux
Point # 14
Nouns ending is ‘sis’ form their plurals by eliminating ‘sis’ and adding ‘ses’ to the noun.
Analysis Analyses Basis Bases
Antithesis Antitheses Hypothesis Hypotheses
Parenthesis Parentheses Synopsis Synopses
Point # 15
Nouns ending in ‘on’ form their plurals by eliminating ‘on’ and adding ‘a’ to the noun